How to write research paper references format
GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE APA STYLE This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all reserch of the APA style. For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a style guide to writing research papers. The Writing Center has these and other resources on researcg, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them.
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Always ask your mentor which style to use before you begin to write your paper. The APA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the American Psychological Association. The APA srite is used in the social sciences and is governed by two basic ideas. The first is that a scientific paper attempts to show something that has already been proven true, so it calls for the papr or present perfect tense when you cite the work of others.
Second, the year of publication is important, so you need to feature it immediately after any named source in the text. Smyth found that children often studied while watching television. Williams and Maier have wrige a new theory of cognition. Use the present tense for generalizations and personal comments.
Website Format for end reference: For articles with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. Follow the examples given below and you will be all set. Though Scientific Style and Format now uses citation—sequence for its own references, each system is widely used in scientific publishing. Dissertations and Theses Lutz M.
Use the past or present perfect tenses only to introduce the work of cited sources. Evidence of the rise of the heroin use exists for every age group, even children. Burroughs and Bruce reported on five incidents of heroin overdose in the under 10 age group.
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Basic APA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page. Leave margins how to write research paper references format at least one-inch at the top, srite, right, and left of every page. Use a reference page for reference to parenthetical citations. Within the text of your paper, underline titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals, films, television programs, and recordings; place in paoer marks titles of articles, essays in anthologies, book ot, and lectures.
Number pages in the upper right hand corner. Include a running head. Plagiarism is generally grounds for failure of a course and can lead to dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a reference page. Enclose direct quotations in quotation marks or otherwise indent them from the body of your text. If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, be sure to use your own language and style of writing — don't simply rearrange the words.
Use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source, then list on a reference page the publications how to write research paper references format sources from which you obtained your citations.
For more detailed information on plagiarism and how to avoid it, see the handout available at the GVC Writing Center. After link first appearance, cite the author's name either within the text of your writing or within the parenthetical citation immediately following the cited passage. Note that commas separate items within parentheses. Following are some examples of in-text citation methods in the APA style. If you tesearch use the author's name in the text, place it within the parenthetical citation with the date.
Provide a page number when you use an exact quotation. Use the singular "p. In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smithp. If you do so, remember to place the date immediately after the author's name.
In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith stated that "participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3. Indent a direct quotation of 40 or more words five spaces from the left wriet. If the quotation includes more than one paragraph, indent the first line of succeeding paragraphs five more spaces ten spaces total. Don't use quotation marks, and be sure to double space the quotation as well as your own writing. Reserch her study of adult patterns of rresearch watching, Roberts reported the following behaviors: Response behaviors exhibited by participants who watched television without any other persons present in the viewing room included imitating the facial expressions and hand movements of television characters as well as talking to individual characters.
Affective rsferences included exhibitions of anger such as shouting and throwing magazines refetences ho television. Write behaviors were less evident behaviors in participants who watched television in groups of three. Instead, participants in group watching were more likely to interject critical or humorous comments regarding the content of particular television programs.
If you're citing an author who's been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text, and cite in parentheses the source in which you found the quotation. Behavior is affected by situation. As Wallace postulated in Individual and Group Behavior, a hwo who acts a certain way independently may act in an entirely different manner while the member of a group cited in Barkin,p. When citing a work with two, three, four, or five authors within the text of the paper, name them all in the first entry, e.
After the first entry, cite only the first author's name followed paprr "et al. When citing a work with six or more authors, name only the first ti followed by et. Reseqrch the author is not given, use the first word or two of the title in the parenthetical citation. wgite
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Massachusetts state and municipal governments have initiated several programs to improve public safety, ofrmat community policing and after school activities "Innovations," If "Anonymous" is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: In the bibliographic references, also use the name Anonymous how to write research paper references format author. The Reference Page You must always have a reference page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism. The Reference Page immediately follows the text of the paper. Fogmat on the reference page are listed alphabetically.
Begin the first line of a reference at the left margin i. All subsequent lines for a reference should be indented one-half inch this is sometimes known as an link or "hanging indent". APA has a second format that uses normal one-half inch indents on the first line of a reference, then left justifies subsequent lines to the left margin. This format is only for documents being submitted for publishing. Student papers should always use the first hanging indent format. For the reference page, use the running head and page number, then center the title "References" two lines below.
Books List the author's last name first with initial of the first name; year of publication in parentheses; title of book underlined capitalize only the first word of the title and of any subtitle, and all proper nouns ; the edition if any in parentheses; place of publication; rrferences publisher. Omit the words Publishing Pa;er and Inc.
Use one space after periods and other punctuation.
Book by one author Zimbardo, P. Psychology and life 13 ed. List more than one book by the same author chronologically, earliest edition or work first. Book by two or more authors—List authors as they are listed in the book; use an ampersand to indicate "and. Textbook or anthology—List cited author, date of the cited author's work, the chapter or section title, the editor's name preceded researcj "In" and followed by Ed. Jobs in the nineties. Issues for the 21st century pp. Book with a corporate author—List alphabetically with authors; if published by the author of the book, list the publisher as the author.
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 3d ed. Book with no author or editor—Alphabetize by book title. Student planning guide for degree programs and portfolios. Periodicals Journal Article—List the author syear of publication in parentheses, title of article without quotation marks and with only the first word, proper nouns, and words after colons capitalized, name of the journal underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number underlined, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by "p. Driver age and crash involvement. American Journal of Public Health.
The myth of carcinogenic elements in tobacco smoke. Magazine—List the author syear and month of publication without abbreviationstitle of the article without quotation marks and with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized, name of the magazine underlined and with all major words capitalized, volume number, and inclusive page numbers preceded by "p. Taking back the streets. School Planning and Management. Newspaper—List the author syear, month, and day of publication without abbreviationstitle of the article with only the first how to write research paper references format and proper nouns capitalized, complete name of the newspaper underlined with all major words capitalized, and the section with discontinuous page numbers preceded by "p.
Global migration will have widespread impact on society, scholars say.
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The Chronicle of Higher Education. Computer Sources The following information is provided in Harnack, A. A Reference Guide how to write research paper references format Using Internet Sources. World Wide Web sites To document a specific file, provide as much as possible of the following information: Author's name Date of publication or last revision if knownin parentheses Title of document Title of complete work if relevantin italics or underlined "Online" in square brackets Availability indicated by the word "Available" URL Retrieval Date indicated in square brackets at end of citation Patterson, O.
Cultural continuity and collective memory. In The Emory center for myth and ritual in Arite life [Online].
If you have more than one entry by the same author, they should be further ordered by increasing publication date more recent papers last. This format is only for documents being submitted for publishing. Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Note that commas separate items within parentheses.
Online document Author's name last name, first and any middle initials. Date of Internet publication. URL or other retrieval information. Book An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet e. Article in an electronic journal ejournal Fine, M. Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations.
Article in an electronic magazine ezine Adler, J.