How to write research paper apa
View in PDF Format An APA-style paper includes the following sections: General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table sand figure s should be on their own pages. Title page see sample on p. On the title page, the header should include the following: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.
It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the resaerch of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript. Flush right, on how to write research paper apa line: Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.
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Abstract No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. The introduction starts out broad but not too broad! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away?
How did the authors accomplish this task? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only how to write research paper apa is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff paer something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas.
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The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.
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Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point researdh differences in methods or findings of relevant studies reseearch necessary. DO NOT quote from the how to write research paper apa, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.
Therefore, apz should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with "how to write research paper apa" complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin qrite sentence. How were the participants recruited?
Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a appa, you should describe it in detail. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e.
In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible.
Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the go here way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the wrlte format: For a one-way ANOVA: Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta2. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for pvalues less than.
Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Double-space for the whole document, including appendicesfootnotestables and figures.
Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same hoa. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as howw figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, ppaper these may not how to write research paper apa be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do how to write research paper apa the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not?
If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie how to write research paper apa the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of how to write research paper apa study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further ro should be conducted on the topic?
What gaps are there in the current body of research?
Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement.
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End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. References labeled, centered, not bold Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p.
Digital how to write research paper apa identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be reesarch. Psychological Assessment, 21, Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending reesarch the information you wish to include.
See the APA manual. Tables can be single or double-spaced. Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Wwrite error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: In-Text Citations see pp.
When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: