How to write paper for publication
References to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reportsor to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided . Here you need to compare the published results by your source with yours using some of the references included in the Introduction. How to write paper for publication readers of this section will help you identify the missing links and improve the technical style of this section. However it is worth putting one down to try and keep yourself focused on what you want to say. I have seen terrible papers do superbly well though selling the concept rather than the content and brilliant papers languish because they went to a mediocre journal with no fanfare.
However, in order for the full impact of research to be achieved and to have any effect on the wider research and scientific community, it must be published in an accessible outlet. Undertaking and performing scientific, clinical and practice-based research is only the beginning of the scholarship of discovery . For the full impact pxper any research to be achieved and to have an effect on the wider research and scientific community, it must be published in an outlet accessible to relevant professionals . Scientific research is often published in peer-reviewed journals.
Peer review is defined as the unbiased, independent, critical assessment of scholarly or research manuscripts submitted to journals by experts or opinion leaders . The process and requirements of reviewers has been covered recently .
On account of this rigorous process, peer-reviewed scientific journals are considered the primary source of new information that impacts and advances clinical decision-making and practice . The development of a research article can be helpful for the promotion of scientific thinking  and the advancement of effective writing skills, allowing the authors to participate in broader scientific discussions that lie beyond their scope of practice or discipline . This article aims to provide pharmacists and healthcare professionals who are undertaking research with an understanding of how to produce a research article for publication, as well as points to consider before submission to a peer-reviewed journal.
Importance of the research question This article will not go into detail about forming suitable research questions, however, in principle, a good research question will be specific, novel and of relevance to the scientific community e. Show Fullscreen Figure 1: FINER criteria for a good research question Source: A good research question should specify the population of interest, be write paper interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field. Having a clear research question that is of interest to those working in the same field will help in the preparation of an article because it can be used as the central organising principle — all of the content included and discussed should focus on answering this question.
Preparing a first draft Before writing the article, it is useful to highlight several journals that you could submit the final article to. Many journals also have criteria that research articles should be able click at this page satisfy. Top tips to prepare for writing Know the focus of the paper — identify two or three important findings and make these the central theme of the article; Gather important data, perform any analyses and make rough data plots and tables beforehand.
These can then be refined for inclusion or submitted as supplementary information if needed; Organise your results to flow in a logical sequence; Know the structure and requirements of your target journals check websites and author guidelines, as well as published articles ; Think about the style of the piece and look to pitch the article at the level of the intended audience; Clarity should be your guiding principle.
Structuring a research article Most research articles follow a similar structure and format that includes an abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion, as well as a summary of the key points discussed in the article. One approach is to what write tax are for offs with the methods section, which can be derived from the protocol and any pilot phase. Many of the figures and tables can be constructed in advance, which will help with writing the results section.
The questions addressed by the study can be used alongside the results to formulate the introduction, which can guide how the discussion is written . Clinical Pharmacist, like other peer-reviewed journals, has specific author guidelines and formatting instructions to help authors prepare their articles . The following sections will discuss the required sections and important considerations for authors when writing. Title, abstract and keywords The title, abstract and keywords are essential to the successful communication of research.
Most electronic search engines, databases e. In addition, the title and abstract are usually freely available online. Therefore, it is imperative that they are informative and accurate. The title should accurately reflect the research, identify the main issue and begin with the subject matter, while being both simple and enticing enough to attract the audience . It is also worth remembering that abstracting and indexing services, such as MEDLINE, require accurate titles, because they extract keywords from them for cross-referencing .
Many journals require the abstract to be structured in the same way as the main headings of the paper e. In general, references should not be cited in the abstract. Introduction The introduction should provide the background and context to the study. Two or three paragraphs can be dedicated to the discussion of any previous work and identification of gaps in current knowledge. The rest of the introduction should then outline what this piece of work aims to address and why this is important, before stating the objectives of the study and the research question .
Methods The methods section should provide the reader with enough detail for them to be able to reproduce the study if desired . The context and setting of the study should be described and the study design specified. The section should further describe the population including the inclusion and exclusion criteriasampling strategy and the interventions performed. The main study variables should be identified and the data collection procedures described .
Authors should provide specific, technical and detailed information in this section. Several checklists and guidelines are available for the reporting of specific types of studies: For the reporting of qualitative research studies, authors should explain which research tradition the study utilises and link the choice of methodological strategies with the research goals .
For studies describing the development of new initiatives or clinical services, authors should describe the situation before the initiative began, the establishment of priorities, formulation of objectives and strategies, mobilisation of resources, and processes used in the methods section .
Statistics The final portion of the methods section will include the statistical methods used to analyse the data . The statistical methods employed should be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to be able to judge its appropriateness for the study and verify the results . Findings should be quantified and presented with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty e. Authors should avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, because these fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates .
Statistical terms, abbreviations and most symbols should be defined, and the statistical software package and versions used should be specified. Authors should also take care to distinguish prespecified from exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses . Results The results section should be straightforward and factual and all of the results that relate to the research question should be provided, with detail including simple counts and percentages .
Data collection and recruitment should be commented on and the participants described. Secondary findings and the results of subgroup analyses can also be presented . They should include significant digits, error bars and levels of statistical significance. Tables should be presented with a summary title, followed by caption, a sentence or how to write paper for publication that describes the content how to write paper for publication impact of the data included in the table.
All captions should provide enough detail so that the table or figure can be interpreted and understood as stand-alone material, separate from the article. Figures should also be presented with a summary title, a caption that describes the significant result or interpretation that can be made from the figure, the number of repetitions within the experiment, as well paper what the data point actually represents. All figures and tables should be cited in the manuscript text .
When compiling tables and figures, important statistics, such as the number of samples nthe index of dispersion standard deviation [SD], standard error of the mean [SEM]and the index of central tendency mean, median or modemust be stated.
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The statistical analysis performed should also be included and specific statistical data should be indicated e. Discussion and conclusions The discussion section should state the main findings of the study. The main results should be compared with reference to previous research and current knowledge, and where this has been extended it should be fully described . For clinical studies, relevant discussion of the implications the results may have on policy should be included .
It is important to include an analysis of the strengths and limitations of the study and offer perspectives for future work . Excessive presentation of data and results without any discussion should be avoided and click is not necessary to cite a published work for each argument presented. Any conclusions should include the major findings, followed by a brief discussion of future perspectives and the application of this work to other disciplines . References The list of references should be appropriate; important statements presented as facts should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used.
Reference lists for research articles, however, unlike comprehensive reviews of a topic, do not necessarily have to be exhaustive.
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References to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reportsor to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided . Authorship and acknowledgements Determining contributors who qualify as authors publicatuon those who should be acknowledged can be difficult. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND Final approval of the version to how to write paper for publication published; AND Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to wriite accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved .
Therefore, only individuals who meet all four criteria should be identified as authors . The contribution of individuals who do not meet all four criteria should instead be included in the acknowledgements. In addition, a statement that recognises any funding sources for the work should be added to the acknowledgements. This statement should adhere to the guidelines provided by the funding institution . Therefore, submitted manuscripts should contain the necessary detail about the study and analytical design, and the data must be available for editors and peer-reviewers to allow full evaluation to take place.
This is now commonplace and is seen as best practice. Author guidelines now include sections related to misconduct and falsification of data . By participating in self-archiving practices and providing full data sets, writte can play click to see more part in transparency. The Royal Pharmaceutical Society website hosts a database to help share data from research studies.
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The map of evidence collates existing evidence and ongoing initiatives that can ultimately inform policy and practice relating to pharmacy; enables the sharing and showcasing of good pharmacy practice and innovation; and aims to increase the knowledge exchange and learning in pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences . Revising your article prior to submission Once a draft research article has been prepared, it should be shared among all of the co-authors for review and comments.
A full revision of the draft should then take place to correct grammar and check flow and logic before journal submission. Selecting a journal and submitting your manuscript It is important to select a journal for submission wisely because this choice can determine the impact and dissemination of your work . Impact factor a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular yearthe scope and readership of a title may also influence your choice.
Furthermore, approval and adequate disclosures must be obtained from all co-authors. A conflict of interests form is also completed as part of the submissions process normally completed by the lead author on behalf of all authors.
This click be a prickly area when dealing with more than 2 other people. Sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been how to write paper for publication substantially. Titles should be specific. Receive feedback and revise again. These hoq are traffic signs that lead the reader through the road of your ideas. Secondary findings and the results of subgroup analyses can also be presented . But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references — it doesn't make a better manuscript!
Many journals now request that a cover letter is also submitted to the editor, putting the study in context and explaining why the research gor of importance to their audience and why it should be considered for publication in their journal. Once this is all completed, the article can be formally submitted usually via email or an online submission system.