Examples of a psychology research paper


How to write a research report in psychology J. Baron, with help from R. Rescorla and an appendix by M. Seligman Sections of the report Title. This should say as much as possible about the content of the paper, in as few words as possible. This is a brief usually one paragraph summary of the whole examples of a psychology research paper, including the problem, the method for solving it when not obviousthe results, and the conclusions suggested or drawn.

Do not write the abstract as a hasty afterthought. Look at it as a real exercise in cramming the most information in one paragraph. The reader should not have to read any of the rest of the paper in order see more understand the abstract fully. Its purpose is to allow the examples of a psychology research paper to decide whether to read the paper or not.

A reader who does not want to read the paper should be able to read the abstract instead. Tell the reader what the problem is, what question you will try to answer, and why it is important. It might be important for practical reasons or for theoretical or methodological reasons having to do with the development of a scholarly discipline.

Don't neglect either type of reason. If the problem is a very basic one, you may state the problem first and then review what has already been found out about it. If the problem is one that grows out of past literature, review the history of how it arose. But do not forget to mention the basic issues behind the research tradition in question, the practical or theoretical concerns that inspired it. Sometimes there don't seem to be any. In this case, you have probably chosen the wrong topic.

Your literature review should be appropriate to the kind of paper you are writing.

If it is a thesis, you should strive for completeness, both in reviewing all the relevant literature and in making the main arguments clear to a reader who is unfamiliar with that literature. Examples of a psychology research paper a course paper or journal article, it is sufficient to review the main papers that are directly relevant. Again, you should assume that your reader has not read them, but you need not go into detail. You should review only those points that are relevant to the arguments you will make.

The introduction should lead up to, and conclude with, a statement of how you intend to approach your question and why your approach is an improvement on past efforts or why it is worth undertaking even if it isn't. This is essentially what is new about your approach, your particular contribution. It need not be "examples of a psychology research paper" great. This section gives the details of how you went about your project. It is usually divided into subsections such as subjects, materials, and procedure. These subheadings are standard ones, but they are not always appropriate, and other subheadings are acceptable.

The point of subheadings is that the reader may want to skip this section entirely and return to it later in the paper. The subheadings should make it easy to find relevant details. This reaearch a summary of what you actually found. It is pzper a dump of your unanalyzed data, nor merely a report of whether your statistical tests were significant, but somewhere in between.

It should contain whatever summary statistics will help readers examples of a psychology research paper for themselves what happened, such as means and standard deviations of various conditions, and raw correlations, when these are relevant. It should also contain the results of statistical tests. Make sure to do and report just those tests that are relevant to the question that inspired your project. If you must include your raw data and sometimes there is good reason to do thisput them in an appendix.

Graphs, charts, and tables are often useful in this section and elsewhere, but less often. They should be labeled consecutively either as Figures or Tables, depending on whether a typesetter could be expected to set them, yes for tables, no for figurese. Each one should have a caption explaining clearly what it is, if possible without relying on anything in the text.

Figure captions are on a separate sheet so that the typesetter can set them, but for course papers, this is not necessary.

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Figures and tables are supposed to go at the end of the paper, but this is for the benefit of the typesetter. Most professors except nitpickers prefer the tables and figures close to where they are needed. It is a good idea to begin the discussion with a summary of the results, for the benefit of the reader who wants to skip the results section and to remind the reader who didn't skip it but got interrupted by a phone call and forgot it.

In each case, tell why. Your task here is not to do a sales pitch for some idea but rather to help the reader understand exactly what can and cannot be examples of a psychology research paper.

example psychology research paper

The discussion section may be combined with the results. The advantage of this is that it puts the results in the context of the issues that generate them. The disadvantage is that the flow of the discussion gets interrupted with a lot of statistics, etc. The discussion section is also the place to say anything else you want to say that does not go anywhere else. You may reflect on the implications of your results, or your methods, or whatever, for other issues that were not the main point of the paper. You can talk about how your project should have been done, and why.

Or you can make a more general argument, for which your results are only a part. You should report your own ideas -- when you can support them with arguments and reply to potential arguments against them. If you can't do this, maybe your ideas need to be changed. You can also make suggestions that might be true, labeled as such, but then try to state the alternative too. It is often a good idea to end the paper with a general statement of main message. More generally, one type of well-constructed paper will reveal its main ideas to a reader who actually reads only the first and last paragraph and the first and last sentence of every intervening paragraph, and this principle applies especially to the discussion section by itself.

This is a list of the articles cited. Usually, articles are mentioned in the text by author and date, e. Each discipline and each journal has its own conventions about references.

Examples of a psychology research paper

These usually insure uniformity, but they don't even help the typesetter. The important thing is that you give the reader what she needs to find the articles you have cited.

Of psychology paper research examples a why hire

For journals, both the volume and the year are usually needed as well as the page numbers, because mistakes are common. Sometimes you want to say something that isn't quite necessary. This is the time to use a footnote. If you can get away without using them, it saves the reader's eyes. But sometimes examples of a psychology research paper hard to resist making rather extensive, but rather tangential remarks.

These go in footnotes, not the text. The really eager reader will read them.

Research of a psychology paper examples your

General advice The "reader". Although it may sometimes seem that your reader is a typesetter, you should write as if your reader were a scholar, that is, a professor, graduate student, or advanced undergraduate, doing what you are doing, trying to get to the bottom of some issue by reading what examples of a psychology research paper people have done.

You may assume that this person is familiar with the discipline you are writing in e. Thus, you need to explain anything not covered in Psychology 1.

Helps you paper examples research psychology of a Revisions:

For some audiences, you need to explain even more, but then you are doing journalism or textbook writing, not scholarship. However, journalism is not a bad thing to learn to do, and scholars are unlikely to object if you explain too much, as long as you do it concisely. Take the attitude that you are part of a giant enterprise of many people seeking the examples of a psychology research paper about the subject you are discussing. Someday you may be surprised to find your professor handing out copies of your paper to other students. Exampels may assume your reader is intelligent, but he reads only your paper, not your mind.

Therefore, when you use any terms that are not obvious, you must make sure to define them so as to remove any relevant ambiguity. A good way to do this is with both an abstract definition and an example: By this definition, a retardate could be called dyslexic if his reading is far oc his speech. Because terms are so important in academic discourse, do not use more than one term for the same idea no matter what you learned in 9th grade English. Academic writing may seem pompous and convoluted to you.

A lot of it is, but the best is not.

These subheadings are standard ones, but they are not always appropriate, and other subheadings are acceptable. A lot of it is, but the best is not. In this case, you have probably chosen the wrong topic. It is suggested that animals can learn about noncontingency. Many readers just scan.

Do not use psycholovy just because examples of a psychology research paper sound academic especially when you aren't sure what they really mean. The major rule of syntax is this: The syntax should help the reader figure out the click here the reader should not need the meaning to decipher the syntax. Of course, pay attention to correct usage as well. Make sure you know the rules for using commas; many people do not.

Strunk and White, "The elements of style," provide an excellent review of the roles, as well as many fine suggestions for elegance as well as clarity. When you read, pay attention to the different ways that people indicate the relationship of their work to the truth. Words such as indicate, demonstrate, prove not used outside of mathematicstest a hypothesishypothesize, suggest, assert, question, claim, conclude, argue, discover, define, and examples of a psychology research paper do have very specific meanings in academic discourse. Appendix on Good Scientific Writing Martin E.

Seligman I've been correcting graduate student papers and editing journal articles for more than twenty-five years. I see the same errors of writing over and over. Here are some to avoid: The first sentences of each section, and the first sentences of each paragraph exampled well, are the most important sentences.


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