Example of a science research paper
Acknowledgments Literature Cited The section headings Abstract, Introduction, etc. Do not begin each section on a new page. If one section ends part of the way down the page, the next section heading follows immediately on the same page. One important general rule to keep in mind is that a scientific paper is a report about something that has been done in the past.
Most of the paper should be written in the PAST TENSE was, were. The present tense is, are is used when stating generalizations or conclusions. The present tense is most often used in example of a science research paper Introduction, Discussion and Rexearch sections of papers. The paper should read example of a science research paper a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work. TITLE Every scientific paper must have a self-explanatory title.
By reading the title, the work being reported should be clear to the reader without having to read the paper itself. The title, "A Biology Lab Report", tells the reader nothing. An example of a good, self-explanatory title would be: This title reports desearch what the researcher has done by stating three things: The environmental factors that were manipulated light, temperature.
The parameter that was measured growth. The specific organism that was studied the bacterium, Escherichia coli. If the title had been only "Effects of Light and Temperature on Rrsearch coli ", the reader would have to guess which parameters were measured. That is, were the effects on reproduction, survival, dry weight or something else? If the title had researvh "Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth of Escherichia coli ", the reader would not know which environmental factors were manipulated. If the title had been "Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of an Organism", then the reader would not know which organism was studied.
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In any of the above cases, the reader would be forced to read more of the paper to understand what the researcher had done. If several factors example of a science research paper manipulated, all of them do not have to be read article. Instead, "Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Growth of Populations ofEscherichia coli " if more example of a science research paper two or three factors were manipulated would be appropriate.
The off applies if more than two or three organisms were studied. For example, "Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Four Species of Bacteria" would just click for source sciehce. The researcher would then include the names of click at this page bacteria in the Materials and Methods section of the paper.
ABSTRACT The abstract section in a scientific paper is a concise digest of examlle content of the paper. An abstract is more than a summary. A summary is a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to orient a reader who has studied the preceding text. An abstract scienve intended to be self-explanatory without reference to the paper, but is not a substitute for the paper.
The abstract should present, in about words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods including, if any, the scientific and common names of gesearchsummarized results, and the major conclusions. Do not include any information paprr is not contained in the body of the paper. Exclude detailed descriptions of organisms, materials and methods. Tables or figures, references to tables paler figures, or references to literature cited usually are not included in this section.
Example of a science research paper abstract is usually written last. An easy way to write the abstract is to extract the most important points from each section of the paper and then use those points to construct a brief description of your study. It exam;le give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework.
You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in volt increments all the way up to volts. Methods Participants There were male 30 participants participating. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. Can people harm others xcience they obey the orders?
After placing your work in a broader context, you should state the specific question s to be answered. This section may also include background information about the problem such as a summary of any research that has been done on the problem in the past and how the present experiment will help to q or expand the knowledge in this general area. All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited.
Proper example of a science research paper of references will be described later. A helpful strategy in this section is to go from the general, theoretical framework to your specific question. However, do zcience make the Introduction too broad. Remember that you are writing for classmates who have knowledge similar to yours.
Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper. For examples, see the Appendix. MATERIALS AND METHODS This section explains how and, where relevant, when the experiment was done. The researcher describes the experimental design, the apparatus, methods of gathering data and type of control. If any work was done in a natural habitat, the worker describes the study example of a science research paper, states its read article and explains when the work was done.
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If specimens were collected for study, where and when that material was collected are stated. DO NOT write this section as though it were directions in a laboratory exercise book. First pour agar into six petri plates. Then inoculate the plates with the bacteria. Then put the plates into the incubator. Simply describe how the experiment was done: Six petri plates were prepared with agar and inoculated with the laper.
The plates were incubated for ten hours. Also, DO NOT LIST the equipment used in the experiment. The materials that were used in the reseqrch are simply click in the narrative as the experimental procedure is described in detail. If well-known methods were used without changes, simply name the methods e. If modified standard techniques were used, describe the changes.
RESULTS Here the researcher presents summarized data for inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data. Only the reserach are presented. No interpretation of the data or conclusions about what the data might mean are given in this section. Do not present raw data! Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. For example, only stating that "Results are shown in Table 1.
The text describes the data presented in the tables and figures and oc attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions. Rules to follow when constructing and presenting figures and tables are presented in a later section of this guide.
The author should include any explanations of how the results differed from those hypothesized, or how the results were click different from or similar to those of any related experiments performed by other researchers. Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important. A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction.
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Since your Introduction went from the general to reesearch specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section.
By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details reseagch how the work was done would not be known.
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If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned cited in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section. This is why the section is called "Literature Cited" instead of "References" or "Bibliography".
The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal. The method that you will follow is the "author-date" system. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper. The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text. Example of a science research paper structure determines the placement of the parentheses.
The following citations illustrate the details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes.
Journal of Unusual Results 36, MATERIALS AND METHODS 1. If a simple equation describes aspects of your science fair project, include it. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. The purpose of your research paper is to give you the information to understand why your experiment turns out the example of a science research paper it does. RESULTS Here the researcher presents summarized data for inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data.
Processes of Organic Evolution. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. Colby Custom Publishing Generally, most references will be to the primary literature i. Exampple literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution.
- Plant growth substances, both exogenously applied and endogenous, have often been implicated in the regulation of male sterility in several plant species Frankel and Galun , Kaul
- Make sure that the source for every citation item copied appears in your bibliography.
- Instruments A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they gave shock to another person in another room.
Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own eexample citation formats. If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and use them appropriately. For a much more detailed discussion about writing scientific papers, consult: CBE Style Manual Committee. A Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers in ;aper Biological Sciences. Council of Biology Editors, Inc. This guide is based on a paper by Gubanich, A.