Example discussion section of a research paper
Conducting Educational Research Step Write Discussion and Conclusion The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, researhc conclusions, and this web example discussion section of a research paper recommendations. It is exakple that everything in this write an essay about your family section is based off of the results of the data analysis.
In an empirical research study, the conclusions and recommendations must be directly related to the data that was collected click analyzed. Simply put, look at the key topics in the conclusion and recommendations. If that topic was not precisely assessed by the questionnaire, then you cannot draw a conclusion or make a recommendation about that topic. A paper can only make valid conclusions and recommendations on those variables that the study has empirical data to example discussion section of a research paper.
For example, almost every single paper written in Nigeria that I read recommends that the government should provide more teaching materials and increase the salaries of teachers. However, better instructional materials and adequate pay are rarely even distantly related to the topic of the paper!
Draw conclusions and make recommendations only directly related to the purpose and results of the study. Everybody in Nigeria knows that rsearch need more materials and teachers need higher salaries Draw conclusions and make recommendations that are meaningful, unique, and relate to the results of the study. Most papers require five different sections for the Discussion, although resaerch order may vary depending on the requirements of the paper. Each section is described separately below. Discussion This section might be called Discussion or it might be called Summary of Findings.
The purpose of this section is to highlight the major statistical findings from the results section and interpret them. First, restate the overall purpose of the study. Then explain the main finding as related to the overall purpose of the study. Next, summarize other interesting findings from the results section. Explain how the statistical findings relate to that purpose of the study. One way to do this is to take every research question and hypothesis in turn and explain in plain terms what the statistical results mean.
Also describe how the results are related to education in general. All explanations must be supported by the results of the data analysis. Generally, the Discussion section does not need to include any numbers. No statistics need to be repeated from the results, nor does the discussion need to refer to table numbers. Instead, simply od the results in language that is easy for a non-researcher to understand.
- References to previous research:
- Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove.
- Overall Objectives The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:
Also try to integrate the findings into the results of other research studies. An example paragraph from a Discussion section is given below: This study found that Nigerian teachers have a mix link beliefs regarding early literacy development, some accurate beliefs and other inaccurate beliefs.
The teachers sampled in this study were accurate in their agreement about the importance of oral language.
- Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid.
- Educators can only change their own behavior; they cannot change the government.
- Results can take the form of data, hypotheses, models, definitions, formulas, etc.
Indeed, with the lack of materials often available for early childhood educators in Nigerian classrooms, instruction focused on oral language may be one of the most successful and cost-effective ways of improving early literacy skills. The four instructional strategies previously mentioned - songs, rhymes, and word play; storytelling; circle time; and dramatic play Roskos et al. However, agreeing to the importance of oral language in literacy development is different from having the expertise to effectively teach oral language skills.
Additional research needs to be conducted to determine how well early childhood education teachers use instructional strategies that promote oral language in the classroom. Particularly in Africa where high quality reading materials are oftentimes scarce, early childhood teachers need to be well trained in teaching strategies that foster oral language. Recommendations Next, give recommendations based on the results of the study.
What practical steps can educators take to implement the key findings of the research study? Remember, these recommendations must be supported by the doscussion findings from the data analysis. If the statistical results found that a new teaching program improves mathematical exam scores, then the only valid recommendation that can be made is that the new teaching program should be implemented in order read more improve exam scores.
However, setcion the data analysis found that the new teaching program does not improve mathematical exam scores, then the researcher cannot conclude that the new teaching program should be implemented, because the program was found to be ineffective in improving exam scores. Educators can only change their own behavior; they cannot change the government.
Therefore, the most beneficial recommendations will be ones that educators themselves can implement. Below is a sample recommendation. Notice how the first sentence provides the empirical support for the recommendation. This study click here that there is considerable variation in thestudents' judgments of acceptability of ethical study practices, providing evidence that university students are not certain about the right way to study.
Thus, teachers need to spend class time educating students about positive, effective study skills. Therefore, direct instruction in study skills is necessary. Discussionn example, teachers should instruct their students on how to set goals for their educationlearning as well as instruction on specific study practices such as effectively reading textbooks and studying notes for the exam. When teachers spend the time necessary for teaching study skills, then students will not be uncertain about ethical study practices and will be zection prepared for their exams.
As Murdock and Anderman note, students who are confident in their abilities engage in less cheating behaviors. After the recommendations have been written, reread each recommendation.
Thus, when information is high in consensus or distinctiveness an example discussion section of a research paper is made to the situation and not the person while for information low in either of these characteristics the opposite is true. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses if you do not plan to do so in the conclusion. Consider which statistical result from the results section supports that recommendation. How were the instruments inadequate? It is likely that the current increasing demand for mental health services in VA and Department of Defense settings will require the implementation of treatments that have not been adequately investigated or alternatively, as in the current study, that treatments with adequate empirical support will be modified or otherwise flexibly implemented in an attempt to meet the needs of veterans. Explain how the statistical findings relate to that purpose of the study.
Consider which statistical result from the results section supports that recommendation. If there is no statistical result to support the recommendation, then it must be canceled. Limitations All studies have limitations in terms of the sample, measurement or manipulation of key variables, and procedure for data collection. This section should report the limitations that resulted from the research methods. How could the research be conducted with a different research design?
How may the participants and ressearch techniques not be representative of the target population? How might the target population be limited? How were the instruments inadequate? Were there any problems with the treatment? What problems resulted from the study's procedures? What other unexpected problems arose in the data collection?
I frequently read that the study was limited by time, money, or other resources.
Most productive a research of paper example discussion section means
However, every single research study ever conducted in the history of this world was limited by money, resources, and time. These factors are external to the study and should not be mentionedd. A sample Limitations section is given below. One of the click here of this research study was the constitution of the sample. First, students were not randomly selected from a larger population to participate in the study. Information about the study was sent home with all of the students at Tonganoxie Elementary School.
The parents then had to sign and return an informed consent document. This might have biased the sample. However, the teachers at Tonganoxie Elementary School commented that students from a range of ability levels participated in the study. The sample was also relatively homogeneous with mostly Caucasian middle class students who lived in a relatively rural community. Therefore, the results might not generalize to other student populations, particularly those in an urban community or those with greater diversity in ethnicity and social secction. Since the experimenter in the check this out also authored the paper, the experimenter researc have biased students' responses during the task.
However, this conclusion was unlikely since the results for the Number Series task were contrary to the original hypothesis. Regardless, a blind administration of the experiment would reseearch been desirable. A ceiling effect also most likely influenced performance on the Equivalence task, with most students having nearly perfect scores.
This effect might have masked differences in performance between the Pictorial and Numeral conditions, particularly in the high ability and second grade samples. Suggestions for Further Research Every research study provides one or two answers about education, but also opens the door for five to ten additional questions. What questions arose because of the major finding of your study? How can "example discussion section of a research paper" research studies improve over the limitations that were described in the Limitations section?
example discussion section of a research paper
Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. Notice how the first sentence provides the empirical support for the recommendation. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note example discussion section of a research paper they may affect the validity of your dkscussion. Finally, after saying all of this, you can make a statement about whether the experiment has contributed to knowledge in the field, or not. So reread your introduction carefully before writing the discussion; you will discuss how the hypothesis has been demonstrated by the new pape and then show how the example discussion section of a research paper knowledge has been changed by the addition of this new data. Write Discussion and Conclusion The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. Unless you made so many errors that the results are completely unreliable, you will; certainly have learned something. Indeed, with the lack of materials often available for early childhood educators in Nigerian classrooms, instruction focused on oral language may be one of the most successful and cost-effective ways of improving early literacy skills.
A sample of Suggestions for Further Research section is below. Educational researchers need to continue conducting empirical research to ascertain the factors that contribute to cheating amongst students. First, researchers should identify the types of malpractices that are most frequent amongst students. Second, researchers should determine what types of factors influence students to engage in examination malpractice.
Finally, experimental research should be conducted to test various strategies for preventing examination malpractice to determine which strategies are most effective. Conclusion The final section of the paper is the Example discussion section of a research paper section. Briefly summarize the overall conclusion of the data analysis based on the purpose of the study.
Won't have example section discussion research a paper of also with
Also explain the importance of the major finding to educational practice. An example conclusion is given below. Literacy is a fundamental human right UNESCO, However, learning how to read is a difficult click that requires competent instructors.
This study provided evidence that primary school teachers in Nigeria need additional professional development to improve their beliefs about literacy development so they can be more effective literacy instructors. Only competent, well trained teachers will help Nigerian children develop a high level of literacy that is necessary for being effective in today's world.